[7], Eratosthenes made several important contributions to mathematics and science, and was a friend of Archimedes. "Eratosthenes of Cyrene."

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(2004/2006). [1] Cyrene became a place of cultivation, where knowledge blossomed. [20] In his three-volume work Geography (Greek: Geographika), he described and mapped his entire known world, even dividing the Earth into five climate zones:[21] two freezing zones around the poles, two temperate zones, and a zone encompassing the equator and the tropics. This testimony of Eusebius is dismissed by the scholarly Dictionary of Scientific Biography.

Marcotte, D. (1998). he was appointed by Ptolemy III Euergetes I as librarian of the Alexandrian library, succeeding the first librarian, Zenodotos, in that post. He calculated the earth’s circumference as 39,690 kilometers, an error of less than one percent (the actual distance is 40,008 kilometers). Eratosthenes made several important contributions to mathematics and science, and was a good friend to Archimedes. Modern scholars disagree about the length of the stadium used by Eratosthenes. Eratosthenes was born around 276 B.C.E. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. "Zeno and Stoic Consistency," in Phronesis. As head of the library Eratosthenes tutored the children of Ptolemy, including Ptolemy IV Philopator who became the fourth Ptolemaic pharaoh. Using his discoveries and knowledge of its size and shape, he began to sketch it. The numbers from one to 400 are written in a table, with the numbers one to 20 across the top row. : The Earth Is Round, and It's This Big", "Astronomy 101 Specials: Eratosthenes and the Size of the Earth", "How did Eratosthenes measure the circumference of the earth?

(Greek scholars knew that the earth was a a sphere).

Eckerman, Chris.

He expanded the library's holdings: in Alexandria all books had to be surrendered for duplication. In the Library of Alexandria he had access to various travel books, which contained various items of information and representations of the world that needed to be pieced together in some organized format. Eratosthenes' method was actually more complicated, as stated by the same Cleomedes, whose purpose was to present a simplified version of the one described in Eratosthenes' book. [7] Eratosthenes was a man of many perspectives and investigated the art of poetry under Callimachus. It does so by iteratively marking as composite, i.e., not prime, the multiples of each prime, starting with the multiples of 2. George Syncellus was later able to preserve from Chronographies a list of 38 kings of the Egyptian Thebes. Rist, J.M. He was a man of learning, becoming the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria. He died in 194 BC at 82 in Alexandria.[8]. He wrote on many topics—geography, mathematics, philosophy, chronology, literary criticism, grammar, poetry, and even old comedies. Eratosthenes' method to calculate the Earth's circumference has been lost; what has been preserved is the simplified version described by Cleomedes to popularise the discovery. Eratosthenes of Cyrene (/ɛrəˈtɒsθəniːz/; Greek: Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος, romanized: Eratosthénēs ho Kurēnaĩos, IPA: [eratostʰénɛːs]; c. 276 BC[note 1] – c. 195/194 BC)[note 2] was a Greek polymath: a mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist. 22, No. The distance between the cities was known from camel caravans to be about 5000 stadia, approximately 800 km. But if what Eusebius wrote was pure fiction, then it is difficult to explain the fact that, using the Greek stadium of 185 meters, the figure of 804 million stadia that he quotes for the distance to the sun comes to 149 million kilometers. The measurement of the inclination of the ecliptic at 23.5 degrees, with an angle error of 7'.

Translations of the Jewish Septuagint were produced at Alexandria as well. The distance Eusebius quotes for the moon is much too low (about 144,000 km); Eratosthenes should have been able to be more accurate than this since he knew the size of the earth and Aristarchos of Samos had already found the ratio of the moon's distance to the size of the earth.

He was born in the city of Cyrene; which is located in present day Libya but used to be a part of the Greek empire. He never married and was reputedly known for his haughty character. This work was highly esteemed for its accuracy. [2] Furthermore, the fact that Eratosthenes' measure corresponds precisely to 252,000 stadia might be intentional, since it is a number that can be divided by all natural numbers from 1 to 10: some historians believe that Eratosthenes changed from the 250,000 value written by Cleomedes to this new value to simplify calculations;[18] other historians of science, on the other side, believe that Eratosthenes introduced a new length unit based on the length of the meridian, as stated by Pliny, who writes about the stadion "according to Eratosthenes' ratio".[2][19]. These works and his great poetic abilities led the pharaoh Ptolemy III Euergetes to seek to place him as a librarian at the Library of Alexandria in the year 245 BC.

He used parallels and meridians to link together every place in the world. [2] He was also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis, once again with remarkable accuracy. ", Zhumud, Leonid. His calculation was accepted by scholars through the Middle Ages. Like any young Greek at the time, Eratosthenes would have studied in the local gymnasium, where he would have learned physical skills and social discourse as well as reading, writing, arithmetic, poetry, and music.[8]. In this book Eratosthenes denounced.

Eratosthenes Of Cyrene 1–3. Greek Scholar's Work Shows Usefulness of Measurement. A large Jewish population lived in the city among the Greeks and Africans. σταδίων μυριάδας τετρακοσίας καὶ ὀκτωκισμυρίας. Starting with the first prime number, two, all multiples of two are crossed off. Eratosthenes' other contributions include: Eusebius of Caesarea in his Preparation for the Gospel|Praeparatio Evangelica includes a brief chapter of three sentences on celestial distances (Book XV, Chapter 53). About 150 years later, the Greek geographer Posidonius thought Eratosthenes' circumference was too large, and used a similar method to calculated the circumference as 18,000 miles, 7,000 miles too short. Assuming that Alexandria was due north of Syene he concluded that the distance from Alexandria to Syene must be 7.2/360 of the total circumference of the Earth. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. The accuracy of Eratosthenes' measurement would have been reduced by the fact that Syene is not precisely on the Tropic of Cancer, is not directly south of Alexandria, and that the Sun appears as a disk located at a finite distance from the Earth instead of as a point source of light at an infinite distance. This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 11:48. Eratosthenes yearned to understand the complexities of the entire world.

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