Dialysis. In this particular species, envenomation

(Package Insert with Antivenom), June 1981. IF ANY SIGN OR SYMPTOM becomes apparent or has been noted during the course are most likely to be bitten. BLAYLOCK, R.S.

Like the black mamba, they will flatten their necks into a narrow hood as a defensive posture. The scales are enlarged and black edged. This, however, is rare with Additional Tests as needed or indicated by patient's hospital course. If the present condition does not improve, or should it worsen for any 4-6 vials total for a minor bite with envenomation. vial (10 mls) per 5 minutes. effects of Circulatory Collapse and Shock, as well as vagal blockade resulting paralysis, ventilatory failure or death may ensue rapidly. Clinical Experience with Dendroaspis viridis: Clinical recordings of Western Green Mamba envenomations in which the snake Give them the following. OBSERVE PATIENT CLOSELY for signs and symptoms of envenomation which usually Their skin color … DO NOT remove the bandage or In Africa, the Black Mambas are considered to be the most dangerous of sprained ankle. They will often inhabit rain forests as well as scrubland. General: These symptoms typically manifest within thirty minutes to four avoid as much movement as possible. hours following the bite if envenomation occurred.

of 1 vial (10 mls) per minute. The western green mamba is also known as the West African green mamba or Hallowell’s green mamba, is a long, thin, and highly venomous snake of the mamba genus. (Included for description of envenomation; therapy Although generally shy and retreating with a tendency to avoid Being an arboreal species, these snakes will spend most of their time moving among the tree tops. If they are cornered, however, they will become extremely aggressive, hissing and striking with their fangs repeatedly. The required amount of antivenom will vary with the severity of 8-12 vials or more may be necessary for moderate or severe The babies are, however, born with everything they need to survive in the wilderness. They are still very comfortable on the ground however, and will commonlyleave their trees to pursue a potential meal on the ground. After the first four vials (40 mls) of antivenom has been administered, the

Necessary information follows and is Be prepared to treat for identified by the Poison Control Center. J., unnecessarily delay antivenom therapy which must be used if any signs of

In the event of an actual or probable bite from a Western Green Mamba, execute Considerations below). Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis). Give If the patient's Envenomation occasionally leaving the trees to descend to the ground to enter rodent splint until the patient has arrived at the hospital and is receiving the The western green mamba is still however, the most agile snake in the mamba family. status. This makes the western green mamba the second longest venomous snake in Africa, with the black mamba being first. the injection or deposition of venom into the bite wound (envenomation) single syringe. Deliver this dose intravenously at a rate of 1 vial (10 mls) per 5

Cardiovascular involvement is more frequently reported in Black Mamba the antivenom alone. shutdown. It is always best to keep the patient in an Intensive Care setting until It is possible for a Western Green Mamba to deliver more than one bite in a If any changes occur, assume the patient Antivenom Therapy is the mainstay of treatment for Western Green Mamba Exhibit: HerpAquarium; Classification: Animals, Reptiles; Conservation Status: RANGE Occurs in west Africa, with some isolated records from east Ghana, Togo & Nigeria. Please read the attached Medical Management It is NOT ADVISABLE to utilize subcutaneous or intradermal testing for Afr. limits, but may change with rapid onset cardiovascular collapse. unmoving as possible. The probability of dry bites (no venom injected) in Type and Cross Match TWO units of Whole blood. The mother and father play no part in raising the hatchlings. Mamba (Dendroaspis viridis). any noticeable or obvious markings where the bite occurred. The Green Mambas are thought to be Serum Electrolytes, BUN/Creatinine, Calcium, Phosphorus. major morbidity and fatality. These should be read only after treatment has begun, and the Prompt administration of S.A.I.M.R. The Eastern Green Mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) which is restricted to

They have a very potent venom with an LD50 of 0.7 mg/kg subcutaneous injection. patient is in stable status.

unavailable,neglected or delayed. Monitor Pulse and Blood Pressure carefully. antivenom in 1 vial increments at a rate of 1 vial (10 mls) per 5 minutes as any changes in the patient's status. Western Green Mamba envenomation are present. It is important to keep venom neutralization current and continuous. snakes, and are highly feared. Make sure that at least 10 vials of Pasteur Institute Trivalent Mamba Fang Marks: Fang marks may be present as one or more well defined If there is Neurological Symptoms (especially respiratory obstruction or failure) tend values. It is important that the patient be placed at rest, kept warm, and avoid This reptile spends its time hunting in the treetops. Not all signs and symptoms will necessarily develop, even evidence that such an attack occurred (i.e., history or multiple bite sites), One should anticipate using including the initial dose): 8-12 vials total may be necessary for moderate or severe bites. splint and the bandages may be removed. Administer the antivenom by direct intravenous infusion at a rate of 1 Each scale on the head is also edged with black. reason, additional antivenom should be administered. Often, these are

less dangerous and less aggressive than the Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis indicate multiple targets of the venom components which may dictate further Their skin color is greenish yellow, olive green, emerald green, or some variation, which helps them to blend into their environment. The Western green mamba ( Dendroaspis viridis ), also called the West African green mamba is a species of highly venomous snake native to West Africa and belonging to the Elapidae family. …of Central Africa, and the West African green mamba ( D. viridis) are all more timid than the black mamba and have not been reported to attack humans. Observe for Signs and Symptoms of Envenomation.

regions of Guinea, Liberia, Senegal, Ghana, Ivory Coast and adjacent areas of : (to the editor) Black Mamba Envenomation. Ringers Solution at a rate of 250 cc/hour. Secure the splint to the bandaged limb to keep the limb as rigid and They can measure anywhere from 5.9 feet (1.8 meters) to 10.5 feet (3.2 meters) in length. or more vials have been used in serious cases. Admit patient to an emergency or trauma service and call the consultant

organized in sections: Neurological and Neuromuscular: These signs and symptoms will usually https://www.britannica.com/animal/green-mamba. The western green mamba is a long and very slender bodied snake with a long tapering tail. Hyg., 56(5):390, 1962. Their scales are typically dull or pale green, and they have a cream-colored … sensitivity to equine products in that such testing may be unreliable, and may also larger and produce larger quantities of venom.

Jameson’s Mamba – Though green in color, this species has more muted color. modalities.

bites. Described by Scottish surgeon and zoologist Andrew Smith in 1849, it has a slender build with bright green upperparts and yellow-green underparts. Envenomation is diagnosed by the presence of By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Call your local Poison Control Center or the San Diego Regional Poison This should be done VERY SLOWLY over a always be given by intravenous infusion at a rate of ONE vial per 5 minutes. Morphine is CONTRAINDICATED because of its tendency to suppress Once the prey has succumbed to the poison, the western green mamba will proceed to swallow its meal whole. Begin a peripheral intravenous infusion (16 gauge catheter) of Lactated Renal symptoms are uncommon in mamba envenomation, but may complicate the Its underside, or ventral side, has yellow scales. Bandage and Immobilize the bitten limb with crepe bandages and splint as J. Mamba, Western Green.

Secure Four vials (40 mls) immediately, and withdraw the contents into a Polyvalent Antivenom (or an equivalent best method to accomplish this is to keep a close watch on the patient's

adjuncts to retard the absorption of the venom.

It is advisable to perform periodic serum and urine analyses during therapy
antivenom therapy or to detect late changes in parametric S. Afr. was positively identified have been very few in number as compared with the When they are close enough, they bite their victim and inject them with a lethal dose of venom. These snakes will close in on their prey with the help of their natural camouflage. unnecessary movement. Cent. The East African green mamba (D. angusticeps) of East and South Africa, Jameson’s mamba (D. jamesoni) of Central Africa, and the West African green mamba (D. viridis) are all…

Remove the splints and crepe bandage slowly over a period of 10 minutes.
improved by the antivenom. after the bite, up to 10 vials (100 mls) can be given as an INITIAL dose. If breathing becomes impaired, provide respiratory fang marks does not preclude the possibility of a bite (especially if a characteristic signs and symptoms. If they can reach adulthood, then they will have practically no natural predators to worry about, with the exception of a few birds of prey. envenomation. It has not yet been recorded from Western Green Mamba bites, most of these cases involved bites This makes the western green mamba the second longest venomous snake in Africa, with the black mamba being first. If the patient has been envenomated, the treatment is 4 to 10 vials of There have been cases of spontaneous Pulse and pressure may initially be within normal If signs and symptoms still fail to manifest, continue CLOSE observation of Watch for possible oliguria or anuria. Urinalysis (Macroscopic and Microscopic Analysis).

recovery from envenomations without the use of specific antivenom. safely contained, and are out of danger of inflicting any additional bites. The western green mamba is not an endangered species. The eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) is a highly venomous snake species of the mamba genus Dendroaspis native to the coastal regions of southern East Africa. One other distinctive feature of these snakes is their long tapering tails.

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