Species at Risk Biologist, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Chatham, Ontario. Inbreeding and extinction: island populations. Peterborough, Ontario. University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana. The Lake Erie Watersnake differs from other watersnakes by being more grayish in colouration and by having a partial or complete lack of blotches or banding (Conant and Clay 1937), whereas the Northern Watersnake has a regular, strongly-banded pattern. Nerodia sipedon (northern watersnake) diet. For example, hardened shoreline was given a rank of zero, whereas armour stone at the water’s edge was given the highest rank of five.

Sites, T.W.
Nerodia sipedon (Northern Watersnake) diet. 2003.

The persecution of island water snakes was severe, and persecution by humans is still a serious problem on several islands.
Novel Cloacal Glands in Snakes: The Phylogenetic Distribution of Ventral Urodaeal Glands in Thamnophiini.

2005. based on the same rationale as follows. His graduate research focuses primarily on nest site selection and embryo hatch success in Spiny Softshells at Long Point National Wildlife Area. Univ. Crotalus horridus (timber rattlesnake), Agkistrodon contortrix (copperhead), Thamnophis sirtalis (common gartersnake), Nerodia sipedon (northern watersnake), Diadophis punctatus (ring-necked snake), Storeria dekayi (Dekay's brownsnake) aggregation.

In addition to unpatterned individuals, both intermediate and regularly patterned individuals are found on the islands. & Collins,J.T. November 2004. MacKinnon, C.A.

Annual report to the Ohio Division of Wildlife and the U.S.

Version 7.1. However, inter-island movements appear to be rare and have only been documented twice (King 2002, D. Jacobs pers. 2006b; King et al. Bishop and Rouse (2006) found that contaminant levels in Lake Erie Watersnakes on Pelee Island did not have adverse effects on embryonic survival.

Natural selection in Middle Island water snakes (Natrix sipedon L.). and R.B. Nerodia sipedon sipedon (northern water snake). 2010. 11 pp. : 819-938-4125 Fax: 819-938-3984 E-mail: COSEWIC E-mail Website: COSEWIC. The OMNRF and Parks Canada have conducted subpopulation surveys for Lake Erie Watersnake on East Sister Island and Middle Island (Parks Canada Agency 2012; D. Jacobs unpubl. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39:1-92. ©Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2006Catalogue No. ." Ducey, Peter K.;Newman, Willis;Cameron, Kimberly D.;Messere, Michael 1998. Hist. The role of the midland water snake, Nerodia sipedon (Serpentes: Colubridae), as a predator: foraging behavior, kin recognition, and the response of prey. 3–4 (see Number of Locations under section Threats and Limiting Factors). Given that the other Canadian islands only support small subpopulations of Lake Erie Watersnake, vehicle-induced mortality on Pelee Island’s roads is likely the most important threat to survival and recovery of this species in Canada. Taggart, S.G. Tilley, and D.B. -. The dangers of living on Pelee Island – A survey of amphibian and reptile mortality on roads. However, the date of retrieval is often important. The colour of the ventral scales is generally white or yellowish white, often with dark speckling.

Het sexueel dimorphisme is vrij duidelijk bij de grotere exemplaren van deze ondersoort; de vrouwtjes kunnen veel groter worden (150 cm totale lengte) dan de mannetjes (121 cm) en ze zijn ook veel zwaarder gebouwd.. 150 cm is wel een record, normaal vind je in de natuur geen vrouwtjes die veel groter zijn dan 110-130 cm. KING Population ecology of the Lake Erie water snake, Nerodia sipedon insularum, is described based on a 5 yr capture-mark-recapture study involving 1449 cap-tures of 1247 individuals. A new subspecies of water snake from islands in Lake Erie. If picked up by an animal or person, it will bite repeatedly, and release excrement and musk. Occasional Papers of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Final report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.

Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis.

Persecution does take place. King focused most of his work in the U.S. Islands, but also sampled in some years on Canadian Islands (King 1986, 1987a, 1987b, 1989, 2002). comm. Species at Risk Detailed Assessments. Color-pattern variation in Lake Erie water snakes: Prediction and measurement of natural selection.

Some indications of the survival value in the type "A" pattern of the island water snakes in Lake Erie. For example, one Lake Erie Watersnake travelled a straight-line distance of 11 km to Middle Island from Kelleys Island in 2002 (D. Jacobs unpubl. Given the increase in Lake Erie Watersnake numbers on the U.S. islands since 1990 (King et al. Mag.

and P.R. Litter size ranges from 9 to 50 with an average of 23 neonates (NatureServe 2005). Lake Erie Watersnakes appear to adapt somewhat to modification of shoreline habitat. Additional threats include environmental contamination and elevated levels of predation. 2008; Jones et al. Kamstra, J., M.J. Oldham, and P.A. Bioscience 47:279-286.

It is suspected that Wild Turkey might consume the species. Although North Harbour Island has been highly modified by its owner, the north and west sides of the island have the potential to function as habitat from a structural perspective (2010 orthoimagery). 1997. American Midland Naturalist 138(1):153-173 -, Lawson, R. 1987. B.A. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.

Both islands appear to have areas with the potential to function as habitat based on review of 2010 orthoimagery. Reports dating back to 1893 suggest that Lake Erie Watersnakes may have been observed on all of the islands in the western basin of Lake Erie (King 1998); however, as indicated in Rowell (2012; pp 274), there are no historical records from Chick, Big Chicken, or Little Chicken. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? In contrast, although Lake Erie Watersnakes may have historically occurred on Middle, Sister and North Harbour, these islands were searched during the 1980s and 1990s and no watersnakes were observed (King et al. Thomas, E.S. Natural selection in water snakes (Natrix sipedon L.) on islands in Lake Erie. The Lake Erie Watersnake: a 23-year perspective of the microevolution, population status, and recovery planning. Egress from hibernation typically starts when the mean maximum daily air temperature rises to 12.8°C (April/May) and ingress into hibernation commences when the mean minimum daily air temperature drops to 15.5°C (September/October) (King 2003). 2004. The hibernation sites are usually cavities and crevices, and are typically composed of soil and rock substrates. George Mason Univ. July 2005).

Lake Erie Watersnakes forage in water along the shoreline, in canals, and in wetlands (B. Porchuk unpubl. Ehrlich, P.R. Designations are made on native species for the following taxonomic groups: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, arthropods, molluscs, vascular plants, mosses, and lichens. Typically, females reach sexual maturity at 60 cm snout to vent length (SVL) and males at about 44 cm SVL (King 1986). King, R.B., A. Queral-Regil, and K.M. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 220 -, McAllister, Chris T. and Henry W. Robison. Reasons for Designation: It has a small population, likely fewer than 1000 adults, confined to four small islands in western Lake Erie. 2012. Hibernation, seasonal activity, movement patterns, and foraging behavior of adult Lake Erie Watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon insularum). 1991) noted that fish comprised over 50% of the watersnake’s diet on Pelee Island and that half of that percentage consisted of logperch and other darters. 2006b). Meanwhile, unpublished studies through the Ontario government, from Pelee Island, the Carden Alvar and the Bruce Peninsula, found that Wild Turkeys had not consumed any vertebrates at all. However, the extent to which such artificial refugia benefit Lake Erie water snakes is currently unknown. 1995. data). It arose from the need for a single, official, scientifically sound, national listing of wildlife species at risk. Fish and Wildlife Service. ; Luiselli, L.; O’Shea, M.; Ota, H.; Passos, P.; Schleip, W.D. Australasian J. Herpetol. Is rescue from outside populations likely? North American Water Snakes.

King, K.M. Univ. Jacobs, D., pers. September 2005. Comparative analyses of blood samples taken from Lake Erie Watersnakes (pre- and post-goby invasion) are currently underway in order to establish levels of PCBs and related toxic compounds (King 2004a), though preliminary analyses suggest that contaminants in Lake Erie Watersnakes have not increased as a result of consuming round gobies (USFWS 2005). comm. Some possible recovery actions are as follows: 1) continuation of a public outreach program directed toward island residents and visitors; 2) habitat protection measures, as needed; 3) voluntary conservation agreements with landowners; 4) design and testing of artificial refugia; 5) increased law enforcement efforts; 6) voluntary land acquisition or conservation easements from willing sellers; 7) monitoring studies; 8) winter hibernation studies; 9) reintroduction of Lake Erie water snakes to appropriate locations; and 10) captive rearing. For example, young individuals have been found up to 610 m inland in the spring (R. Willson unpubl. King, R.B. NatureServe (2005) lists the Lake Erie Watersnake’s global status as G5T2 (demonstrably widespread, abundant and secure, but taxon is imperiled). Art Bookbindery, Canada.

Zool. Lake Erie Watersnake Researcher. November 2004; R. Brooks pers. Watts, F.B. The offshore islands are isolated from the Ohio and Ontario mainland by approximately 3-9 mi (4-14 km) of water. Amphibians and reptiles of the islands of Lake Erie.

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