Fish ponds were a luxury of the lordly elite, and many were found next to castles. They would rule the local land and all the people who lived there.  Others were adjacent to or in royal forests or deer parks and were important in their upkeep.  Although primitive, they were often effective, and were only overcome by the extensive use of siege engines and other siege warfare techniques, such as at the Battle of Alesia.  The enceinte was the castle's main defensive enclosure, and the terms "bailey" and "enceinte" are linked. Even in war, garrisons were not necessarily large as too many people in a defending force would strain supplies and impair the castle's ability to withstand a long siege.  Although often associated with the motte-and-bailey type of castle, baileys could also be found as independent defensive structures. Though sometimes expressed through chivalric events such as tournaments, where knights would fight wearing a token from their lady, it could also be private and conducted in secret.  Historian Smail in Crusading warfare argued that the case for the influence of Eastern fortification on the West has been overstated, and that Crusaders of the 12th century in fact learned very little about scientific design from Byzantine and Saracen defences. In Lincoln, 166 houses were destroyed to clear space for the castle, and in York agricultural land was flooded to create a moat for the castle. Where keeps did exist, they were no longer square but polygonal or cylindrical. Around 4000 years BC, ancient Asian, Middle Eastern and North African civilizations started fortifying their smaller settlements with natural walls (rocks, cliffs), stones and wooden walls. In Scotland there was little castle building until the late 12th century. The high cost, relative to other castles of its type, was because labourers had to be imported.. , The entrance was often the weakest part in a circuit of defences. In 1642 the English Civil War broke out and many castles were brought back into use. There would be multiple rings of defensive walls, one inside the other, with the inner ring rising above the outer so that its field of fire was not completely obscured.  The site of the 13th-century Caerphilly Castle in Wales covers over 30 acres (12 ha) and the water defences, created by flooding the valley to the south of the castle, are some of the largest in Western Europe. | Casle Timeline. If the innovations in fortification had derived from the East, it would have been expected for their influence to be seen from 1100 onwards, immediately after the Christians were victorious in the First Crusade (1096–1099), rather than nearly 100 years later. Model of Hemyock Castle in Devon, a typical example of a late medieval castle.  Stone forts such as these served as defensive residences, as well as imposing structures to prevent Iroquois incursions. , A keep was a great tower and usually the most strongly defended point of a castle before the introduction of concentric defence. Some high concentrations of castles occur in secure places, while some border regions had relatively few castles. This then enabled the castle’s French attackers to infiltrate the building and take control of it. , Around 1500, the innovation of the angled bastion was developed in Italy. Why did they build Castles? This download is exclusively for KidsKonnect Premium members!To download this worksheet, click the button below to signup (it only takes a minute) and you'll be brought right back to this page to start the download! Castles were very expensive to build and run.  The use of guns for defence gave rise to artillery castles, such as that of Château de Ham in France.
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